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History of Shihan Kano Jigoro (details)

History of Shihan Kano Jigoro (details)
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Kanō Jigoro (嘉納 治五郎) was born on 28 October 1860 in the town of Mikage, Japan (now within Higashinada-ku, Kobe). He was the founder of Judo popular as Kodokan judo.

Kanō Jigorō as a youth began practicing jujutsu as a way to strengthen his frail body. Kano studied both the Tenjin Shinyo-ryu and Kito-ryu styles of classical jujutsu. He mastered these styles, and supplemented this training with an avid interest in other combative forms. Integrating what he considered the positive points of these with his own ideas and inspirations. He transformed the traditional jujutsu principle of "Defeating strength through flexibility" into a new principle of "Maximum efficient use of physical and mental energy".  The result was a new theoretical and technical system that Kano felt better matched the needs of modern people.

Judo was the first Japanese martial art to gain widespread international recognition, and the first to become an official Olympic sport.

Pedagogical innovations attributed to Kanō include the use of black and white belts, and the introduction of dan ranking to show the relative ranking between members of a martial art style. Well-known mottoes attributed to Kanō Jigorō include "Maximum Efficiency with Minimum Effort" and "Mutual Welfare and Benefit".

In his professional life, Kanō was an educator. Important postings included serving as director of primary education for the Ministry of Education (文部省 Monbushō) from 1898 to 1901, and as president of Tokyo Higher Normal School from 1901 until 1920. He played a key role in making judo and kendo part of the Japanese public school programs of the 1910 year.

Kanō was also a pioneer of international sports. Accomplishments included being the first Asian member of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) (he served from 1909 until 1938); officially representing Japan at most Olympic Games held between 1912 and 1936; and serving as a leading spokesman for Japan's bid for the 1940 Olympic Games.

Kanō Jigorō was died on 4 May 1938 (aged 77) aboard MV Hikawa Maru of pneumonia.

His official honors and decorations included the First Order of Merit and Grand Order of the Rising Sun and the Third Imperial Degree. Kanō was inducted into the IJF Hall of Fame on 14 May 1999.

Judo is taught under two methods, one called "Randori", and the other "Kata".
'Randori', or Free Exercise, is practised under conditions of actual contest. It includes throwing, choking, holding down, and bending or twisting the opponent's arms or legs. The combatants may use whatever tricks they like, provided they do not hurt each other, and obey the general rules of judo etiquette.
 "Kata", which literally means "Form", is a formal system of prearranged exercises, including, besides the aforementioned actions, hitting and kicking and the use of weapons, according to rules under which each combatant knows beforehand exactly what his opponent is going to do.
The use of weapons and hitting and kicking is taught in "Kata" and not in "Randori", because if these practices were resorted to in "Randori" injury might well arise.

Today, the International Judo Federation includes representatives from 195 countries and regions.

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